What are forest fires?How are they caused and what are the measures taken to control them?

 A forest fire is that type of fire which are caused in forest due to heat that  are produced in summer generally. we can call it as unplanned fire or uncontrolled fire . it may be cause in vegetation which may be combustible it can be classified as wild fire, bush fire or wildland fire. it is very common in those areas where the climate is Mediterranean Causes There are many causes of such fire like in natural causes are- Lighting dry climate  volcanic eruption Human activity is also major cause of forest fire or may called as wild fire. people who visit forest or cross through forest  smoker discard there cigarettes' or power line arc or spark from ignition can cause fire in forest. Measures  There is no such major to control the fire but we can prevent forest from such fire by not discarding cigarettes  and using such equipment which produces spark with some fire equipments like extinguisher and as such .   

Work permit system According to OISD 105

 Work permit system is used in industries so that a person working in hydrocarbon processing/handling plant can work safely and do not get harm to its life and and the property. in short it is used so that a person can work safely 

Type of Work permit

Work permit are of 5 types-
  • Cold work permit
  • Hot work permit
  • Confined space entry
  • Composite permit
  • Electrical isolation and Energization permit
  1. Cold work permit- opening process machinery, blinding & deblending, tightening of flanges, hot bolting, inspection, painting etc. These are some of the work that falls under Cold work permit. It requires two copies in these two copies the original document should be yellow in colour and the copy should have Printed Yellow in colour in Copy  document.
  2. Hot Work permit- Work like grinding , welding and many such work are consider in hot work permit, entry and operation of petrol and diesel driven vehicle also comes under this permit. in this work permit three copies are made the original one is in pink colour and the remaing have written copy in pink colour and the original is issued to the receiver and the copies are given one to fire and safety section and one retained in the book.
  3. Confined space entry- This permit is required when a person is entering in the vessel, boiler or in such things. it is also applied on excavation having 1.2 m deep or entering in floating roof tank which is more than 3m down from top. it also applies three copies the original one is in different colour from hot and cold work permit.
  4. Composite work permit- Composite work permit are those which is applied on those work like entering the confined space and working hot work or cold work.


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