Showing posts from April, 2021

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Why does fire smoke kills you

 Introduction Smoke  is a second stage of fire  which moves from low pressure to high pressure or in upward direction because of  warmness in smoke  due to this warmness temp of the closed room can easily raise to 100 Celsius faster and in long room or hall it can spread slowly. Gases present in the smoke  In smoke gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapors are present. in smoke carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is very poisonous  due to  presence of these gases it also affect the body like coughing and irritation in eyes and excess inhalation of these gases may lead to the death of a person. if a person got exposed to smoke then he can only inhale upto only 55 ppm(parts per million) of smoke. Prevention if a person got stuck in a smoky room he or she can get out of the room by crawling out of the room and same thing can be done for evacuation if the SCBA set is not present there for fire fighter.

What are forest fires?How are they caused and what are the measures taken to control them?

 A forest fire is that type of fire which are caused in forest due to heat that  are produced in summer generally. we can call it as unplanned fire or uncontrolled fire . it may be cause in vegetation which may be combustible it can be classified as wild fire, bush fire or wildland fire. it is very common in those areas where the climate is Mediterranean Causes There are many causes of such fire like in natural causes are- Lighting dry climate  volcanic eruption Human activity is also major cause of forest fire or may called as wild fire. people who visit forest or cross through forest  smoker discard there cigarettes' or power line arc or spark from ignition can cause fire in forest. Measures  There is no such major to control the fire but we can prevent forest from such fire by not discarding cigarettes  and using such equipment which produces spark with some fire equipments like extinguisher and as such .   

Water and its properties

 Why water is used as extinguishing agent. Water is used as extinguishing because it is easily and widely available to extinguish the fire and is very effective and inexpensive. water is transportable and can be pumped from source to fire scene. Water comes in three states that are 1. solid 2. liquid 3. vapor(steam) . Physical properties of water. at normal temperature water exist as stable liquid it viscosity remain same at temperature ranges from 34 to 210 Fahrenheit. It has high density due to which it can project from nozzle. Specific heat of water is 1btu per lb. Due to its high latent heat of evaporation it very effective in cooling agent. Extinguishing properties of water. Extinguishing by cooling- Water is used to extinguish solid fire. as the water is introduced to fire it promotes heat loss due to which fire starts to extinguish and as its physical property water is effective in cooling due to its high latent heat of evaporation. Extinguishing by smothering. When the water is

Work permit system According to OISD 105

 Work permit system is used in industries so that a person working in hydrocarbon processing/handling plant can work safely and do not get harm to its life and and the property. in short it is used so that a person can work safely  Type of Work permit Work permit are of 5 types- Cold work permit Hot work permit Confined space entry Composite permit Electrical isolation and Energization permit Cold work permit-  opening process machinery, blinding & deblending, tightening of flanges, hot bolting, inspection, painting etc. These are some of the work that falls under Cold work permit. It requires two copies in these two copies the original document should be yellow in colour and the copy should have Printed Yellow in colour in Copy  document. Hot Work permit- Work like grinding , welding and many such work are consider in hot work permit, entry and operation of petrol and diesel driven vehicle also comes under this permit. in this work permit three copies are made the original one is